High-speed pool and billiards video clips

An interesting link from Billiards @ColoStateThese videos provide a lot of useful information!Quoted…————The video clips (below) were filmed with a special high-speed camera. The super slow-motion playback helps you visualize effects that cannot be seen with the naked eye or with a standard video camera. Refer to the book for a description and illustration of the principles involved.NOTE: If you enjoy the super-slow-motion high-speed video clips, you might want to consider purchasing the HSV DVD.NOTE: If the video clips fail to play properly, or if you want to change the media player or its attributes, try using the alternative interface instead. If this doesn’t work, see the website instructions.Chapter 2 – FundamentalsHSV 2.1 – Miscue due to off-center hit with no chalkChapter 3 – Executing Basic ShotsHSV 3.1 – Stop-shot showing loss of bottom spin over distanceHSV 3.2 – Stop-shot to prevent a scratchHSV 3.3 – Side-pocket miss due to near point deflectionHSV 3.4 – Side-pocket miss off far pocket wallHSV 3.5 – Side-pocket near miss due to wall rattleHSV 3.6 – Side-pocket rattle outHSV 3.7 – Corner pocket, in off near pointHSV 3.8 – Corner-pocket miss due to near rail deflectionChapter 4 – Spin and EnglishHSV 4.1 – Draw shotHSV 4.2 – Following an obstacle ball into a pocketHSV 4.3 – Rail dribble follow shotHSV 4.4 – Deflection (squirt) due to high-speed sidespinHSV 4.5 – Deflection (squirt) due to high-speed sidespin (close-up)HSV 4.6 – Object-ball throw at slow speedHSV 4.7 – Object-ball throw at fast speedHSV 4.8 – Cut-shot throw at fast speedHSV 4.9 – Cut-shot throw at slow speedHSV 4.10 – Rail cut-shot with running englishHSV 4.11 – Rail cut-shot with running english, hitting the rail very earlyHSV 4.12 – Rail cut-shot with running english, hitting the rail earlyHSV 4.13 – Rail cut-shot with running english, hitting the rail late and/or too hardHSV 4.14 – Rail cut-shot with reverse english, with kiss away from the railHSV 4.15 – Rail cut-shot slightly away from the rail exaggerating the effect of Figure 4.34HSV 4.16 – Rail cut-shot slightly away from the rail exaggerating the desired effects of Figure 4.30Chapter 6 – Bank and Kick ShotsHSV 6.1 – Cushion deformation during high-speed bankHSV 6.2 – Cue ball kicked off a rail at an angle with topspinHSV 6.3 – Cue ball kicked off a rail at an angle with bottom spinHSV 6.4 – Cue ball kicked off a rail at an angle with normal rollHSV 6.5 – Cue ball kicked off a rail at an angle with stunHSV 6.6 – Cue ball kicked off a rail with fast speed and reverse englishHSV 6.7 – Cue ball kicked off a rail with fast speed and natural englishHSV 6.8 – Cue ball kicked off a rail with slow speed and reverse englishHSV 6.9 – Cue ball kicked off a rail with slow speed and natural englishHSV 6.10 – Cue ball kicked straight into a rail with sidespinHSV 6.11 – Cue ball kicked off a rail with reverse englishHSV 6.12 – Cue ball kicked off a rail with natural englishHSV 6.13 – Ball banked fast into the rail with cut-angle and englishHSV 6.14 – Ball banked slowly into the rail with cut-angle and englishChapter 7 – Advanced Techniques (Shot Making)HSV 7.1 – Throw of a frozen object-ball at slow speedHSV 7.2 – Throw of a frozen object-ball at slow speed, with englishHSV 7.3 – Throw of a frozen object-ball at fast speedHSV 7.4 – Throw of a frozen object-ball at fast speed, with englishHSV 7.5 – Frozen cue-ball throwHSV 7.6 – 8-ball break with a square, center hitHSV 7.7 – 9-ball break with a square, oblique hitHSV 7.8 – Making the 8-ball on the break in the near side-pocketHSV 7.9 – Making the 8-ball on the break in the near corner-pocketHSV 7.10 – Making the 8-ball on the break in the far side-pocket (with deflection assist)HSV 7.11 – Making the 8-ball on the break in the far side-pocketHSV 7.12 – Ball frozen to a rail banked with a double-kiss near-missHSV 7.13 – Cue ball kicked off the rail with top spinHSV 7.14 – Cue ball kicked off the rail with top spin (side view)HSV 7.15 – Cue ball kicked off the rail with rollHSV 7.16 – Cue ball kicked off the rail with roll (side view)HSV 7.17 – Cue ball kicked off the rail with stunHSV 7.18 – Cue ball kicked off the rail with stun (side view)HSV 7.19 – Cue ball kicked off the rail with bottom spinHSV 7.20 – Cue ball kicked off the rail with bottom spin (side view)HSV 7.21 – Slight massé curve around a ballHSV 7.22 – Massé curve around a ball adjacent to a railHSV 7.23 – Jump shot (slight bottom spin)HSV 7.24 – Jump shot (slight top spin)HSV 7.25 – Jump shot (tip slip and stun)Additional clips not referenced in the book (but referenced in Billiards Digest articles):HSV A.1 – Illegal jump shots – scooping under the cue ball (close-up)HSV A.2 – Legal jump shots – hitting down on the cue ball (close-up)HSV A.3 – 9-ball power break with follow (close-up side view)HSV A.4 – 9-ball power break with draw (close-up side view)HSV A.5 – Cue deflection during a hard shot with englishHSV A.6 – Wooden cue deflection due to a firm stroke with englishHSV A.7 – Composite cue deflection due to a firm stroke with englishHSV A.8 – Outside english cut shotHSV A.9 – Double hit near missHSV A.10 – Slight double hitHSV A.11 – Non double hit with followHSV A.12 – Double hitHSV A.13 – Cue-tip reaction for a very large offset, slow speed, double-hit miscue shotHSV A.14 – Cue-tip reaction for a very large offset, medium speed, double-hit miscue shotHSV A.15 – Cue-tip reaction for a very large offset, fast speed, single-hit miscue shotHSV A.16 – Cue-tip reaction for a very large offset, very fast speed, non-miscue shotHSV A.17 – Cue-tip reaction for a large offset, medium-slow speed, near double-hit miscue shotHSV A.18 – Cue-tip reaction for a large offset, medium-fast speed, non-miscue shotHSV A.19 – Cue-tip reaction for a large offset, medium-fast speed, near-miscue shotHSV A.20 – Cue-tip reaction for a medium offset, very fast speed, non-miscue shotHSV A.21 – Hard follow shots with a small cut angle, close to a railHSV A.22 – Power break with slightly elevated cue resulting in airborne cue ballHSV A.23 – “The Hustler” frozen bank shotHSV A.24 – “The Hustler” draw-massé shotHSV A.25 – Cue flex and vibration due to firm stroke with englishHSV A.26 – Kick shot perpendicular to the rail with englishHSV A.27 – Kick shot with small approach angle and reverse englishHSV A.28 – Kick shot with small approach angle and running englishHSV A.29 – Kick shot with medium approach angle and reverse englishHSV A.30 – Kick shot with medium approach angle and running englishHSV A.31 – Kick shot with medium approach angle and stunHSV A.32 – Kick shot with medium approach angle and drawHSV A.33 – Kick shot with medium approach angle and followHSV A.34 – Hand grip during a firm stroke with impact at the bottom of the pendulum swingHSV A.35 – Draw shot with small offset, light grip, good follow-through, slow speed, and about 1.75 feet of drawHSV A.36 – Draw shot with large offset, light grip, good follow-through, slow speed, and about 2.25 feet of drawHSV A.37 – Draw shot with small offset, light grip, good follow-through, fast speed, and about 4 feet of drawHSV A.38 – Draw shot with large offset, light grip, good follow-through, fast speed, and about 7 feet of drawHSV A.39 – Draw shot with small offset, firm grip, punch stroke, slow speed, and about 1.5 feet of drawHSV A.40 – Draw shot with large offset, firm grip, punch stroke, slow speed, and about 2.5 feet of drawHSV A.41 – Draw shot with small offset, firm grip, punch stroke, fast speed, and about 0.5 feet of drawHSV A.42 – Draw shot with medium offset, firm grip, punch stroke, fast speed, and about 5.0 feet of drawHSV A.43 – Draw shot with large offset, light grip, good follow-through, slow speed, and a miscueHSV A.44 – Draw shot with large offset, light grip, good follow-through, fast speed, and a miscueHSV A.45 – Draw shot with large offset, firm grip, punch stroke, slow speed, and a miscueHSV A.46 – Follow shot with medium offset, light grip, good follow-through, and slow speedHSV A.47 – Follow shot with medium offset, light grip, good follow-through, and fast speedHSV A.48 – Follow shot with large offset, light grip, good follow-through, and slow speedHSV A.49 – Follow shot with large offset, light grip, good follow-through, and fast speedHSV A.50 – Follow shot with medium offset, firm grip, punch stroke, and slow speedHSV A.51 – Follow shot with medium offset, firm grip, punch stroke, and fast speedHSV A.52 – Follow shot with large offset, firm grip, punch stroke, and slow speedHSV A.53 – Follow shot with large offset, firm grip, punch stroke, and fast speedHSV A.54 – Follow shot with large offset, light grip, good follow-through, fast speed, and miscueHSV A.55 – Center ball hit with light grip, good follow-through, and slow speedHSV A.56 – Center ball hit with light grip, good follow-through, and fast speedHSV A.57 – Center ball hit with firm grip, punch stroke, and slow speedHSV A.58 – Center ball hit with firm grip, punch stroke, and fast speedHSV A.59 – Power break with good follow-throughHSV A.60 – Masse draw shot with firm follow-through and good actionHSV A.61 – Masse draw shot with firm follow-through and miscueHSV A.62 – Cut shot with outside english and slow speedHSV A.63 – Cut shot with inside english and slow speedHSV A.64 – Cut shot with outside english and fast speedHSV A.65 – Cut shot with inside english and fast speedHSV A.66 – Straight-on shot with english and slow speedHSV A.67 – Straight-on shot with english and fast speedHSV A.68 – Kick shot with large approach angle, running english, and slow speedHSV A.69 – Kick shot with large approach angle, running english, and fast speedHSV A.70 – Kick shot with large approach angle, reverse english, and slow speedHSV A.71 – Kick shot with large approach angle, reverse english, and fast speedHSV A.72 – Kick shot with large approach angle, draw, and slow speedHSV A.73 – Kick shot with large approach angle, draw, and fast speedHSV A.74 – Kick shot with large approach angle, follow, and slow speedHSV A.75 – Kick shot with large approach angle, follow, and fast speedHSV A.76 – Austrian high-speed and infrared video clipsHSV A.76a – Close-up of tip during off-center hitHSV A.77 – Close-up of cue tip impact for a center-ball hit with a soft tip at slow, medium, and fast speedsHSV A.78 – Close-up of cue tip impact for a center-ball hit with a medium hardness tip at slow, medium, and fast speedsHSV A.79 – Close-up of cue tip impact for a center-ball hit with a hard tip at slow, medium, and fast speedsHSV A.80 – Close-up of cue tip impact for a center-ball hit with a super hard tip at slow, medium, and fast speedsHSV A.81 – Close-up of cue tip impact for a power break with various hardness tipsHSV A.82 – Throw and spin transfer for a small offset and slow, medium, and fast speedsHSV A.83 – Throw and spin transfer for a medium offset and slow, medium, and fast speedsHSV A.84 – Throw and spin transfer for a large offset and slow, medium, and fast speedsHSV A.85 – Spin transfer from the cue ball to two frozen object balls, with a small offset and slow, medium, and fast speedsHSV A.86 – Spin transfer from the cue ball to two frozen object balls, with a medium offset and slow, medium, and fast speedsHSV A.87 – Spin transfer from the cue ball to two frozen object balls, with a large offset and slow, medium, and fast speedsHSV A.88 – Two frozen object balls hit with a 15-degree approach angle stop shot at slow and fast speedsHSV A.89 – Two frozen object balls hit with a 45-degree approach angle stop shot at slow and fast speedsHSV A.90 – Two frozen object balls hit squarely with a 0-degree approach angle draw shot at slow and fast speedsHSV A.91 – Two frozen object balls hit squarely with a 0-degree approach angle follow shot at slow and fast speedsHSV A.92 – Two frozen object balls hit squarely with a 15-degree approach angle draw shot at slow and fast speedsHSV A.93 – Two frozen object balls hit squarely with a 15-degree approach angle follow shot at slow and fast speedsHSV A.94 – Two frozen object balls hit squarely with a 45-degree approach angle draw shot at slow and fast speedsHSV A.95 – Two frozen object balls hit squarely with a 45-degree approach angle follow shot at slow and fast speedsHSV A.96 – Straight-on frozen cue ball shots with various amounts of englishHSV A.97 – Frozen cue ball shots with various approach anglesHSV A.98 – English and squirt for a soft tip at slow speed and increasing offsetsHSV A.99 – English and squirt for a soft tip at fast speed and increasing offsetsHSV A.100 – English and squirt for a medium hardness tip at slow speed and increasing offsetsHSV A.101 – English and squirt for a medium hardness tip at fast speed and increasing offsetsHSV A.102 – English and squirt for a hard tip at slow speed and increasing offsetsHSV A.103 – English and squirt for a hard tip at fast speed and increasing offsetsHSV A.104 – English and squirt for a super hard tip at slow speed and increasing offsetsHSV A.105 – English and squirt for a super hard tip at fast speed and increasing offsetsHSV A.106 – English and squirt for a Predator 314 shaft at slow speed and increasing offsetsHSV A.107 – English and squirt for a Predator 314 shaft at fast speed and increasing offsetsHSV A.108 – English and squirt for a Predator Z shaft at slow speed and increasing offsetsHSV A.109 – English and squirt for a Predator Z shaft at fast speed and increasing offsetsHSV A.110 – Double hit check with a small gap between the CB and OB, level cue, and slow, medium, and fast speedsHSV A.111 – Double hit check with a small gap between the CB and OB, slightly elevated cue, and slow, medium, and fast speedsHSV A.112 – Double hit check with a small gap between the CB and OB, elevated cue, and slow, medium, and fast speedsHSV A.113 – Double hit check (side view) with a small gap between the CB and OB, level cue, and slow and fast speedsHSV A.114 – Double hit check (side view) with a small gap between the CB and OB, slightly elevated cue, and slow and fast speedsHSV A.115 – Double hit check (side view) with a small gap between the CB and OB, elevated cue, and slow and fast speedsHSV A.116 – Double-kiss check of a rail-frozen object ball bank with follow, draw, and outside englishHSV A.117 – Straight-on kick shot at fast speed with follow, stun, and drawHSV A.118 – Straight-on kick shot at slow speed with follow, stun, and drawHSV A.119 – Straight-on kick shot of a polished ball at fast speed with follow, stun, and drawHSV A.120 – Straight-on kick shot of a polished ball at slow speed with follow, stun, and drawHSV A.121 – Power break — shooter’s bodyHSV A.122 – Power break — cue follow-throughHSV A.123 – Power break — cue ball reactions for draw, follow, and skipHSV A.124 – Follow shot skips over a stack of dimesHSV A.125 – Ball collision (close-up)HSV A.126 – Jump shotsHSV A.127 – Masse shotHSV A.128 – Rail cut-shot hitting the ball first, with fast speed, slight draw, outside englishHSV A.129 – Rail cut-shot hitting the ball first early with outside english HSV A.130 – Rail cut-shot hitting the ball first, with more-than-gearing outside englishHSV A.131 – Rail cut-shot hitting the ball first, with less-than-gearing outside englishHSV A.132 – Rail cut-shot hitting the rail first, with natural (running) englishHSV A.133 – Rail cut-shot hitting the rail first a little early, faster, with natural (running) englishHSV A.134 – Rail cut-shot hitting the rail first, hitting the ball while compressing, with stun and no englishHSV A.135 – Rail cut-shot hitting the rail first, hitting the ball during rebound, fast, with slight natural (running) englishHSV A.136 – Rail cut-shot hitting the rail first, hitting the ball at maximum compression, very fast, with slight natural (running) englishHSV A.137 – Rail cut-shot hitting the rail first, hitting the ball while compressing, fast, with draw and natural (running) englishHSV A.138 – Rail cut-shot hitting the rail first, hitting the ball at maximum compression, with lots of natural (running) englishHSV A.139 – Rail cut-shot hitting the rail first, hitting the ball while compressing, with natural (running) englishHSV A.140 – Rail cut-shot hitting the rail first (barely), hitting the ball during initial compression, with lots of natural (running) englishHSV A.141 – Rail cut-shot hitting the rail first (barely), hitting the ball during initial compression, slower, with stun and lots of natural (running) englishHSV A.142 – Vernon Elliott cross-side bank with chalk on the object ball to increase throw and spin transferHSV A.143 – Follow shot showing limited spin transfer and “vertical throw”HSV A.144 – Follow shot with chalk on the object ball to increase throw and spin transferHSV A.145 – Draw shot showing limited spin transfer and “vertical throw”HSV A.146 – Draw shot with chalk on the object ball to increase throw and spin transferHSV A.147 – Close-up of tip-ball impact for a slow center-ball hitHSV A.148 – Cose-up of tip-ball impact for a fast center-ball hitHSV A.149 – Close-up of tip-ball impact for an accelerating-stroke, exaggerated follow-through, center-ball hitHSV A.150 – Close-up of tip-ball impact for a medium-speed draw shotHSV A.151 – Close-up of tip-ball impact for a medium-speed follow shotHSV B.1 – Draw shot cue and ball reactionHSV B.2 – Illegal “scoop” jump shotsHSV B.3 – Various jump shot techniquesHSV B.4 – Object ball jump shotHSV B.5 – Jump and break shot strokes and gripsHSV B.6 – Double hit detection and avoidanceHSV B.7 – One-pocket frozen-ball spot shotHSV B.8 – Jump shot off the railHSV B.9 – Cue flex and vibrationHSV B.10 – MOFUDAT stroke drill follow and draw effectsHSV B.11 – One-pocket “beat-the-kiss” frozen rail cross-corner bank shotHSV B.12 – Beating a scratch by bouncing the cue ball off the rear rim of a pocketHSV B.13 – Level cue follow shot hop over stacks of coinsHSV B.14 – Jump shot tip, ball, cloth, slate interaction, with and without a spare piece of clothHSV B.15 – Straight-on kick shot rebound losses and spin changes for roll, stun, and draw shotsHSV B.16 – Classic “passing lane” trick shot with Tom RossHSV B.17 – Coin hop off the rail into a glass trick shotHSV B.18 – Spin-induced throw speed and english effectsHSV B.19 – Highly elevated cue jump shotsHSV B.20 – Rail cushion compression shotsHSV B.21 – Follow-the-rail trick shot (the “banana” or “snake” shot)HSV B.22 – One-pocket double kiss off the rail kick shotHSV B.23 – Cue ball path speed, spin, and cue elevation effectsHSV B.24 – Draw shot with elevated cue and hop over an obstacle ballHSV B.25 – Kick rebound-angle speed, english, and spin effectsHSV B.26 – Overspin with a follow shotHSV B.27 – Billiard draw shot with post-rail-rebound curve (circular draw shot)HSV B.28 – Frozen-ball kiss, miscue, and push shots and foulsHSV B.29 – Small-gap force follow shotHSV B.30 – Cut-induced and spin-induced throw and spin transferHSV B.31 – Classic “over-and-under-the-bridge” trick shotHSV B.32 – Cross-side bank shot double-kiss avoidanceHSV B.33 – Outside english gearing, and cut and spin-induced throwHSV B.34 – Bank shot double-kiss zone with balls frozen and close to the railHSV B.35 – Cue and cue ball speed changes during a typical strokeHSV B.36 – Various miscues with double-hit rule interpretationHSV B.37 – Jump shot over-cut effect and examplesHSV B.38 – Precision jump into a cluster of balls to avoid a foulHSV B.39 – Kiss-back shot with difficult secondary cushion contactHSV B.40 – Stroke speed and acceleration analysis, with Bob Jewett HSV B.41 – Bank speed effects, with Bob Jewett HSV B.42 – Tip and cue efficiency, with Bob JewettHSV B.43 – Break squatHSV B.44 – Cloth compression and cue ball trajectory for draw shots of various elevationsHSV B.45 – Effective mass of various ball racks and clustersHSV B.46 – CB and OB hop and spin transfer during follow shotsHSV B.47 – Effect of shaft endmass and squirt on miscue limitHSV B.48 – “Hit quarter off ball” proposition/trick shotHSV B.49 – Cue ball and object ball weight/size difference effectsSee also:Normal-speed pool and billiards video clipsInstructional articlesInteresting high-speed video clips of non-billiards stuffJacksonville Project and other high-speed video studiesDBKcues Russian high-speed videosSnooker high-speed videosCopyright notice: None of the video files linked on (the) site may be copied, reproduced, transmitted, displayed, performed, distributed, rented, sublicensed, altered, stored for subsequent use or otherwise used in whole or in part in any manner without the prior written consent of David G. Alciatore.

Player Ratings

Alphabetical list of Player Ratings systems

Player Ratings in Pool and Billiards

Player Ratings reviews archived from http://billiards.colostate.edu/threads/ratings.html

… how to rate, compare, handicap, and track progress of pool players in tournaments and leagues.

Dr. Dave’s answers to frequently-asked questions (FAQs), mostly from the AZB discussion forum

Various drills can also be used to rate and track improvement of players.


Accu-Stats TPA

How does Accu-Stats’ player rating system work?

The Tournament Performance Average (TPA) can be used to measure a Player Ratings or player’s performance in a match or tournament. It is a single number (like a batting average) based on the following formula:

TPA = (# of Balls Made) / (# of Balls Made + # of Errors)

Errors are any of the following:

  • missing a shot
  • getting out of position
  • missing a kick
  • scratching on the break
  • failing to execute a safety successfully

For example, if you make 100 balls in a match and commit 25 errors, your TPA would be 0.8 or 80% (100/125). A perfect score, with no errors, would be 1.0 or 100%.

Click on the following links for a complete description, a sample scoresheet, and blank score sheets.


A-D rating system

How do you interpret the letter player ratings (A-D) sometimes used to refer to player ability?

Interpretations of the A-D ratings can vary in different regions and among different league/tournament systems. Also, sometimes different labels are used (e.g., “AAA, AA, A, B, C” or “Masters, AA, A, B, C, D” or “Open A B C D” or “A+, A, A-, B+, … , D” instead of “A B C D”). The 9-ball rating drill and other “playing the ghost” rating drills can be used to assess a player’s offensive ability. These drills assigns the letter designation (A-D) based on performance.

A better system for determining and monitoring a player’s level of ability is the Billiard University (BU) rating system. It assesses a wide range of important pool skills in a methodical, thorough, and consistent way. It also provides a numeric and descriptive rating. The BU rating comparison chart shows how the BU rating correlates to other commonly used rating and handicapping systems, including the A-D system. Here’s an image of the ratings comparison table:

BU rating comparison

Here’s a simple interpretation of the A-D scale from the online glossary:

A:  a good player capable of running most racks and/or playing lock-up safeties.

B:  a decent player capable of running racks and playing effective safeties periodically.

C:  an average player who doesn’t run racks very often and doesn’t have much of a safety game.

D:  a novice player who makes many mistakes, can’t run even an easy rack, and never even considers playing safe.

Here’s an alternative and more-detailed interpretation of the A-D scale from Capelle’s “Play Your Best Pool” (p.386):

D: A beginner or someone who plays so infrequently that their game remains in the beginner category.

C-: A below average player – this denotes a player with some recognizable skills who has definitely risen from the ranks of beginners. This is the first major milestone.

C: An average player – describes a large section of pool enthusiasts with experience whose games perhaps have leveled off, or that only play occasionally.

C+: Above average player – this group plays a very acceptable game of pool. They tend to dominate their level of competition.

B-: This is perhaps the biggest hurdle, as a good number of players peak at the C+ level. A B- is a good player who is quite capable of running a rack of Eight Ball or Nine Ball. However, they usually lack consistency.

B: A solid, advanced player – these players can run out fairly regularly, but lack a little consistency.

B+: Players at this level are often mistaken for lower level A players when they are playing well because they play a very tough, well-rounded game. They can run out from nearly anywhere at anytime.

A-: Another big jump is required to break through to the “A” level. This group of players could be classified as semi-pros or top amateurs. They are very skilled in nearly all facets of the game. They run out easily and very often.

A: A professional quality player who can compete with and occasionally beat all but the best players. Very skilled, solid, and consistent. Runs multiple racks quite often. Tough to beat.

A+: Touring Pro – the best. Skilled in every area of the game. Breaks and runs out multiple racks regularly. Definitely in a class by themselves.

 

from Tom_In_Cincy:

9-Ball Tournament race to 7
(paraphrased from Dec.1997 “All About Pool” magazine article by Bob Cambell)

Handicap rankings

D-Player
will not run a rack
average run is about 3 balls
with ball in hand, will get out from the 7, one out of 3 times
rarely plays a successful safe

C-Player
will probably run one rack, but usually not more than one rack in a typical race to 7
avg. run is 3 to 5 balls
with ball in hand, will get out from the 7, two out of 3 times
mixed results when playing safe
inning ends due to botched position, missed shot or attempting a safe.

B-Player
Able to run 1 to 3 racks
avg. run is 5-7 balls
with ball in hand will get out form the 5, 2 out of 3 times
most of the time a “B” player will play a “safety” which maybe hit easily 2 out of 3 times
a typical inning will end with a missed shot, a fair safety, or a won game

A-Player
will string 2 to 3 racks
avg. ball run, 7-9
with ball in hand, will be out from the 3 ball, 2 out of 3 times
typical inning will end with a well executed safety or a win.

OPEN-Player
average 8+ balls
string racks together more than once in a match
is a threat to run out from every ball, from every position, every inning
typical inning will end in excellent safety or win

Mr. Cambell continues this article with a handicap chart for the 4 levels of each type of player. The chart would look like this;

Lowest handicap is D4, then D3, then D2 and so on until the highest would be OPEN 1

 

from Chuck Fields (in AZB post):

D players are bangers, they dont stand right, dont shoot right. Making a ball is usually more luck than skill.

C players are figuring out how to stand and the importance of a good stroke. Theyre trying to play and can make a couple of balls here and there. If the balls are laying good they might get lucky and run out once in a blue moon

B players are a little more serious students of the game. Their fundamentals are usually consistent and their pocketing is better. Position play varies from rudimentary to knowing some of the safer routes to use. If the balls lay good they are a threat to run out 50% of those racks. A tough out takes some luck to get out of.

A players are gaining consistency. Their pocketing is good, their position play is good. They are expected to get out of an easy run most of the time, and the hard outs are getting consistently better but they lack the consistency of better players.

Short stops are players capable of pro speed play, but cant hit their gear at will. The short stop is usually the best A player in the area and is the shortstop based on consistency.

Pro level players have the knowledge and the skill set to get out most racks that are runnable, and are smart enough to know when not to push it. They have learned how to hit their top gear pretty much at will and are usually separated by consistency of hitting that gear. The top guys are “on” almost all the time, and when they are off the difference is usually only one or two shots a match.

 

from Jude Rosenstock:

D – Will appear as though they are stumbling through the rack. Their occasional run-outs will either consist of very easy layouts (which they will nearly mess-up), a few lucky shots and/or unintentional position.

C – Greater sense of cue control and much more of a deliberate appearance than a D. They will undoubtedly run out with BIH with 3 or 4 left and will make it look routine but are suspect beyond that.

B – Really the beginning of the run out player. If they make a ball on the break and get position on the 1 ball, they should have a reasonable expectation to get out. Any cluster or unusual position play will diminish their chances significantly. Usually, B players possess unusual strength in either pocketing, strategy or position play. Rarely two of three, never all three. Their creativity is usually limited at this level but you may begin to see glimpses of what’s to come.

A – Definitely categorized as a run out player. They are supposed to capitalize on most mistakes. Greater attention is paid to more subtle details. Expect a consistent and strong break and strength in multiple attributes (pocketing, defense, position play, creativity). Most noticeable among players at this level and above is an aura of confidence.

Open & Above is very similar to what you see described in A only more refined. You will see advanced to expert break, pocketing, defense, position play and creativity. Low level opens might be advanced in all of these categories while world class professionals might be experts in most or all. All of these players are expected to run out with any routine opportunity. Any run-stopper situation (clusters, blocked position routes) is expected to be handled in such a way to still give the shooter an expectation of winning.


APA handicapping system

How does the APA Equalizer Handicapping system work for Player Ratings?

See the following official description from APA that doesn’t include much detail:

APA Equalizer Handicap System

Here’s an unofficial description that provides more details:

description of APA handicapping system on AZB

An alternative and transparent system that is very easy to implement is the simplified APA league handicapping system.

Here’s a video that provide instructions on how to keep score during APA 8-ball matches:

8-Ball Scorekeeping with the APA 3-Point Scoring System

 

How do APA player ratings differ or compare to the A-D system?

Actual levels of ability corresponding to different player ratings can vary significantly among different leagues and different regions. There is no direct correlation between an APA rating and actual level of play. The ratings are relative only to other players in the league. However, in a competitive league with a wide range of abilities, the APA ratings will generally correlate with traditional A-D player ratings along the lines summarized by Koop below.

from Koop:

SL-3 or below: D+ Player or below
SL-4: D+ to C- Player
SL-5: C- to C Player
SL-6: C+ to B- Player
SL-7: B
SL-8: B+ to A-
SL-9: A to Open


Arizona 1-10 rating system

How does the 1-10 rating system developed in Arizona work and compare to other player ratings?

See the following resources:

Here’s how the Arizona Ratings compare to the “National Scale:”

AZ        Nat.       Description
10-2      A+        Top professional. World class player. Capable of winning major professional tournaments. Almost always finishes in the money in any tournament entered.

10-1      A           Professional, or player possessing professional skills. Capable of winning local open tournaments. Usually finishes in the money in regional tournaments.

10          A-         Semi-pro, or player possessing professional skills. Capable of winning or placing high in the money in local open tournaments.

9            B+         Advanced. Very good position play, strategy and consistency. Top league player. Consistent competitor in local open tournaments.

8            B           Advanced. Good position play, strategy and consistency. Good league player. Competitive in local open tournaments.

7            B-          Intermediate. Fair amount of knowledge and experience, but inconsistent in execution. Average league player.

6            C+         Intermediate. Has learned quite a few shots, but has a lot to learn about position play and strategy. Inconsistent.

5            C            Novice. Has a grasp of the fundamentals, but does not know much about the physics of the game. Lower-level league player.

4            C-           Novice. Very basic knowledge of the fundamentals. Knows almost nothing about position play. Lowest-level tournament player.

3             D+         Novice. Knows little about the fundamentals, but might know a couple of shots. Average social player.

2             D           Novice. May not know anything about the fundamentals or making shots. Non-competitive.

1             D-          Novice. Knows nothing about the game except maybe a few rules of play.

A better system for determining and monitoring a player’s level of ability is the Billiard University (BU) rating system. It assesses a wide range of important pool skills in a methodical, thorough, and consistent way. It also provides a numeric and descriptive rating. The BU rating comparison chart shows how the BU rating correlates to other commonly used rating and handicapping systems, including the Arizona 1-10 system.


Billiard University (BU) playing-ability rating system

How does the Billiard University (BU) player ratings system work?

The two Billiard University (BU) playing ability exams (“Exam I – Fundamentals” and “Exam II – Skills”) provide an accurate assessment and rating of overall pool-playing ability. The following video provides an overview of the BU assessment and rating process:

The total score of the two exams indicates your player rating according to the BU ratings table, which also compares BU ratings to other traditional rating and handicapping systems. Here’s an image of the ratings comparison table:

BU rating comparison

Here’s an overview of both BU Exams:

Much more information can be found on the Billiard University (BU) website.

Exam scores, ratings, and exam videos of official BU graduates can be found on the BU alumni page. Also, unofficial scores and videos for a wide range of AZB users can be found on the AZB BU thread.


Elo rating and handicapping system

What is the Elo rating and handicapping system, and how does it work?

The Elo rating and handicapping system is a statistics-based system for tracking player ability and for matching up people in fair matches. It was originally developed for the chess world for ranking players and grouping them accordingly in tournaments of different playing abilities. For more information, see the Wikipedia Elo page.


FargoRate rating and handicapping system

How does the FargoRate rating and handicapping system work?

The FargoRate rating and handicapping system, which is different from the Fargo rating drill, is a statistics-based system for tracking player abilities. Here’s a video summary of what it is. Here’s a rough interpretation of the numbering:

800 – A top world-class professional
700 – A top regional player in the US; a threat to cash in the Master’s Division at the BCA/VNEA Championships; a threat to run six in a row if the break is working
600 – Likely to cash in the BCA Open Division but probably won’t make it to the top 32; may get moved to Master’s Division and then flounder; has run three-in-a-row multiple times and maybe four-in-a row a time or two
500 – A good local league player; runs out first time at the table in about 10% of the games
400 – Runs out first time at the table in about 1% of the games (once or twice a league season)
300 – A beginner league player
200 – absolute beginner; may miscue frequently

Here’s how Fargo ratings roughly compare to those of other systems:

NPL – Fargo
135 – 700
105 – 600
75 – 500
45 – 400
15 – 300

APA Fargo
7 – >560
6 – 500-560
5 – 425-500
4 – 350-425
3 – <350

Minnesota – M8 Master/Advanced – Fargo
Master – >125 – >630
AA – 100-125 – 575-630
A – 75-100 – 500-575
B – 50-75 – 425-500
C – <50 – <425

Additional comparisons, including how Fargo ratings correlate with Billiard University (BU) ratings, can be found in the BU rating comparison chart. Here’s an image of the ratings comparison table:

BU rating comparison

Starting in 2015, CSI started using FargoRate to track player ratings and assign handicaps in all league and tournament events. For more info, see the CSI press release.

The following webpage allows you to look up Fargo Ratings for different players and determine a probability for one player to beat another in given race: fairmatch.fargorate.com.


15-ball-rotation player-rating drill

from BeiberLvr (in AZB post):

1. Rack all 15 balls. Any order, but the 1 must be at the top, and the 15 in the middle.
2. Break
3. Player can take as many ball in hands each rack until all balls have been made.
4. Player does NOT have to take ball in hand immediately after the break.
5. Player can use a ball in hand at any point during the rack.
6. Play a total of 10 racks.
7. Player’s score is determined by the total # of ball in hands taken after all 10 racks are completed.
8. Slop counts.
9. Player must continue shooting even if the 15 ball drops early.

Summary of what is a foul/BIH penalty:
– CB scratch (1 foul)
– OB off table (1 foul, and ball gets spotted)
– Missed shot (1 foul)
– Missed shot and then scratch (1 foul)
– Lowest ball not hit first (2 fouls)
– Lowest ball not hit first and then scratch (2 fouls)
– Make a ball and scratch (1 foul). If a legal hit is made, but the ball that dropped wasn’t the lowest ball, it gets spotted. If the lowest ball was made, it stays down.

from dr_dave (in AZB post):

I suggest the following for score-based player ratings:

0-20 Pro
21-35 A
36-50 B
51-65 C
66-80 D
81+ BANGER

Also, here are some additional rule clarifications:
– Each ball in hand (BIH) taken counts as a penalty point.
– All of the foul points listed above are penalty points.
– Balls made on the break stay down, even on a scratch (although, a scratch on the break results in a penalty point and BIH).
– You get BIH after a scratch, and this counts as only 1 penalty point.
– “Slop counts” means balls don’t need to be called and every pocketed ball stays down, unless there is a foul as described above.
– The score is the total number of penalty points resulting from BIHs and fouls.

 

Here are some example racks with good scores: Dr. Dave practicing 15-ball rotation. Scores and videos for a wide range of AZB users can be found on the AZB BU thread.

A better system for determining and monitoring a player’s level of ability is the Billiard University (BU) rating system. It assesses a wide range of important pool skills in a methodical, thorough, and consistent way. It also provides a numeric and descriptive rating. The BU rating comparison chart shows how the BU rating correlates to other commonly used rating and handicapping systems.

Note – An interesting game based on 15-ball is called American Rotation. A brief description, detailed rules, score sheets, and more information can be found on the American Rotation resource page.


14.1 straight-pool rating system

from Dan White (in AZB post):

Daily practice session, play at least two hours just trying to run balls. After a miss, start each new run with a new break ball and new rack. Set up a realistic straight pool break shot, not a gimmick break that sends balls everywhere. This is the typical high run achieved almost every day of play with excellent table conditions:

Professional: 98 or 7 racks
A level player: 56 or 4 racks
B level player: 35 or about 2.5 racks
C level player: 28 or 2 racks
D level player: 14 or less

Of course there are gradations between levels.

I put B close to C because the hardest thing to do in straight pool is not running all 14 balls, but doing that and leaving a good break shot on the last ball. The C player won’t have much hope of getting on more than one break ball (other than the first one with ball in hand), but the B player will, albeit maybe not the best break shot, and so just a few more balls made in that rack (35 total).

from efirkey (in AZB post):

If there is no opponent and I am just trying to get a high run for hours than I expect …
Based on many years and thousands of straight pool games …
Highest run for the day playing several games

Pro Level – 75+
A Level – 40+
B Level – 28+
C Level – 18+
D Level – 10+

from DAVE_M (in AZB post):

D = 10-15 balls
I’ve seen some terrible players run 14 balls, make the break shot, but have no shot in the next rack, because they don’t know what they are doing.

C = 15-30 balls
I’ve also seen C players run 14, make the break shot and have no shape. If they make it through the second rack, they choke on the second break shot. But like they say, even a blind squirrel finds a nut.

B = 30+ balls
Once you get into the next few racks, you will see where your 14.1 knowledge lies.

A = 80-100 balls+
I’ve seen A players run 60+ with ease.

 


Hopkins Q Skill Challenge Ratings

How does the Hopkins Q Skill Challenge rating system work?

The Hopkins Q Skill Challenge is described in detail here. Here are the original ranking divisions for the different score ranges, along with an estimated correspondence with the traditional A-D lettering system:

Rank

# Per Inning

# in 10 Innings

# in 50 Innings

Traditional Designation

Recreational

0.0 –   3.0

0   – 30.0

0 –   150

recreational

Intermediate

3.1 –   6.0

30.1   – 60.0

151 –   300

D (beginner)

Advanced

6.1 –   9.0

60.1   – 90.0

301 –   450

C (intermediate)

Developing Pro

9.1 – 12.0

90.1  – 120.0

451 –   600

B (advanced)

Semi-Pro

12.1 – 16.0

121.1 – 160.0

601 –   800

A (expert)

Professional

16.1 – 18.0

160.1 – 180.0

801 –   900

AA (master)

Touring Pro

18.1 – 20.0

180.1 – 200.0

901 – 1000

AAA (pro)

A better system for determining and monitoring a player’s level of ability is the Billiard University (BU) rating system. It assesses a wide range of important pool skills in a methodical, thorough, and consistent way. It also provides a numeric and descriptive rating. The BU rating comparison chart shows how the BU rating correlates to other commonly used rating and handicapping systems.


National Pool League (NPL) rating system

How does the NPL rating system work?

This basic system was developed by Bob Jewett and is described here:

www.sfbilliards.com/NPL_info.txt


Playing Ability Test (PAT)

What is PAT?

The Playing Ability Test (PAT) is a multi-level drill-based player rating examination developed in Europe. It is described here: www.pat-billiard.com

A better system for determining and monitoring a player’s level of ability is the Billiard University (BU) rating system. It assesses a wide range of important pool skills in a methodical, thorough, and consistent way. It also provides a numeric and descriptive rating. The BU rating comparison chart shows how the BU rating correlates to other commonly used rating and handicapping systems.


“playing the ghost” rating drills

Is there a drill that can be used to measure my level of play?

Many “playing the ghost” player rating drills have been developed and used over the years. The phrase “playing the ghost” implies that you are playing by yourself against a fictitious opponent (the “ghost”) who never misses. A ghost drill consists of racking a certain number of balls (e.g., 7, 9, 10, 15), breaking, taking ball in hand after the break, and attempting to run out. Alternatively, you can just randomly spread the balls on the table before taking ball in hand. If you run out, you have beaten the “ghost.” You can keep score by keeping track of your rack winning percentage or by totaling the total number of balls pocketed before missing in a given number of racks (e.g., 10).

“Playing the ghost” drills are useful to rate your level of play and track improvement over time. They also provide practice with offensive skills (shot making, position play, handling of clusters and problem balls, and breaking). Safety play, a very important part of the game, is not addressed in “playing the ghost” drills. Example “playing the ghost” drills and rating systems are the 9-ball rating drill (which provides a 1-10 and A-D rating) and the 10-ball version described below. The 15-ball-rotation rating drill provides a similar way to rate performance. The 10-ball-ghost version is the most recommended and seems to provide fairly accurate player ratings. Here’s a record-keeping spreadsheet created by “tashworth19191” (in AZB post) useful for tracking progress over time with the 9-ball rating drill. Videos of many people doing a race-to-seven and other “playing the ghost” challenges can be found in the AZB Ghost Challenge thread.

The “playing the ghost” drills do not test a complete range of pool skills, but they do a decent job at rating a person’s primary offensive skills. However, the scores can vary a lot from one session to the next, and there can be a fair amount of luck (both good and bad) involved concerning ball clustering and weird run-out patterns; but if you do a bunch of sessions and throw out the low and high scores, the median (middle) score provides a fairly accurate measure of one’s offensive ability.

A better system for determining and monitoring a player’s level of ability is the Billiard University (BU) rating system. It assesses a wide range of important pool skills in a methodical, thorough, and consistent way. It also provides a numeric and descriptive rating. The BU rating comparison chart shows how the BU rating correlates to other commonly used rating and handicapping systems.

As with all rating systems and drills, results can vary with table size. Generally, the rating systems are developed assuming the drills are done on a typical-difficulty-level, standard 9′ table. The Table Difficulty Factor (TDF) offers a way to compare difficulty levels of different tables to help put scores and ratings into proper perspective.

More rating drills can be found under drills here.


Pool Quotient (PQ) progressive-drill ability test

Is there a set of drills I can use to get a good measure of my overall ability?

The Pool Quotient (PQ) ability test, based on progressive practice drills is a good tool to measure ability and track improvement over time. Here it is: PQ Ability Test. Other self-assessment info can be found here.

A better system for determining and monitoring a player’s level of ability is the Billiard University (BU) rating system. It assesses a wide range of important pool skills in a methodical, thorough, and consistent way. It also provides a numeric and descriptive rating. The BU rating comparison chart shows how the BU rating correlates to other commonly used rating and handicapping systems.


simplified APA game-winning percentage handicapping system

Is there a simple handicapping system that can be used to run an APA-type league?

Yes. See the Simplified APA Game-Winning Percentage Handicapping System created by Wayne Bebert. The skill levels it creates fit into the APA skill-level and handicapping system.

 

from Wayne Bebert:

I have put together a formula that can be done in two steps, fits the APA 2-7 system and is based off cold hard facts. I call it the game winning percentage formula:

S = (G + 40) ÷ 20

where:

S: skill level

G: individual game winning percentage

Example:

(0 + 40) ÷ 20 = 2 skill level

(100 + 40) ÷ 20 = 7 skill level

Everything in between can be rounded accordingly.

This is a great foundation for a league to be built upon. It is simple, yet it sheds light on what really decides pool talent, which is winning capability.

I love playing pool. The APA’s lack of transparent information regarding their formula is less than ideal, IMO. A league based off the game winning percentage formula would stop the eternal arguments about questionable skill levels because one can just look at the facts.


10-ball ghost player-rating drill:

The following drill offers a simple and fast way to obtain an approximate player rating (based on offensive skills). However, 10 racks of 10-ball is not enough to get a representative score. There is too much variability from one rack to the next, and there is a luck factor involved. A better approach is to do 30 racks and drop the 10 highest and 10 lowest scores. This would give a more representative score and rating.

A better system for determining and monitoring a player’s level of ability is the Billiard University (BU) rating system. It assesses a wide range of pool skills in a methodical, thorough, and consistent way. It also provides a numeric and descriptive rating. The BU rating comparison chart shows how the BU rating correlates to other commonly used rating and handicapping systems.

Scores and videos for a wide range of AZB users can be found on the AZB BU thread.

from Eric.:

Joe Tucker has a thing he uses that proves to be pretty accurate. It goes like this:

Rack up some 10 ball. Break from anywhere. After the break, take ball in hand and run out, in rotation (1, 2, 3, etc…) All balls made on the break count. Any balls made on a scratch are spotted. [Added by dr_dave: A scratch incurs a 2-point penalty.] Once you miss, the rack is over. You should shoot 10 racks and count the total balls made for each rack. After 10 racks, take your total and compare it to this chart:

[added by dr_dave: <30 D]
30-35 D+
36-40 C
41-45 C+
46-50 B
51-55 B+
56-60 A
61-65 A+
66-70 A++
71-up Pro

I’m not sure if it matters what size table. I like this rating system because it takes a lot into account as far as player ability i.e. shot making, position play, cluster breaking, break skill. It makes no difference if you play 10 ball or not, the results are very close to reality.


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